XIX Article 19 (United Kingdom, f. 1982)

ARTICLE 19 is an international human rights organization that defends and promotes freedom of expression and freedom of information all over the world. Article 19 monitors, researches, publishes, lobbies, and campaigns for freedom of expression wherever it is threatened. Article 19 works worldwide with 52 organizations in thirty countries.; monitors threats to freedom of expression; is involved in advocacy and campaigning; produces legal standards, legal analyses and critiques, and undertakes litigation. Article 19 provides legal and professional training, and is involved in research and policy development.


Center for International Media Action (United States)

The CIMA is a non-profit organization funded through fee-for-service contracts and fundraising. CIMA’s goal is listening to, promoting, prioritizing and respecting the voices and concerns of those who have been marginalized from and by the media on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, gender, age, physical and mental ability, sexual orientation, class status or socio-economic situation. CIMA’s website is intended as an information-exchange space for groups using advocacy and activism to change the media system. The focus is on organizations and events, building our strategies and learning from each other. It provides a calendar of events and opportunities; a Media policy Action Directory; an Organizers Toolkit, and a section on Research and Reflections.


Committee of Concerned Journalists (United States, f. 1997)

The CCJ is a consortium founded by journalists, publishers, owners and academics in the United States worried about the future of journalism. The group is encouraging a debate among journalists in the United States about fundamental principles. It’s main goals are to clarify and renew journalists' faith in the core principles and function of journalism; to create a better understanding of those principles by the public; to engage and inform ownership and management of these principles and their financial as well as social value. CCJ has issued a statement of concern, created a network of professionals in the United States, held forums, conducted surveys, organized workshops, and published studies. The website also offers tools for journalists.


Committee to Protect Journalists (United States, f. 1981)

CPJ is an ngo that employs full-time program coordinators monitoring the press, by conducting independent research and fact-finding missions, and furthermore keeping track through firsthand contacts in the field, including reports from other journalists. By publicly revealing abuses against the press and by acting on behalf of imprisoned and threatened journalists, CPJ warns journalists and news organizations where attacks on press freedom are occurring. CPJ organizes public protests and works through diplomatic channels to effect change. CPJ publishes a newsletter, articles and news releases; special reports; a biannual magazine, Dangerous Assignments; and Attacks on the Press, a comprehensive annual survey of press freedom around the world. CPJ organizes the annual International Press Freedom Awards.


International Freedom of Expression eXchange (Canada, f. 1992)

IFEX (Eng., Fr., Sp., Russ., Arab.) is comprised of a worldwide network of member organizations. IFEX monitors freedom of expression abuses through the Action Alert Network, provides updates, and circulates press releases. IFEX maintains an Outreach and Development Programme to support and strengthen freedom of expression organizations in the developing world by offering information, financial and technical resources, expertise, and international support and recognition. IFEX publishes a Communique, a weekly e-mail newsletter.


Index on Censorship  (United Kingdom, f. 1972)

Index on Censorship was founded by a team of writers, journalists and artists to defend the basic human right of free expression. The Index on Censorship publishes a wide range of opinion, analysis, comment and reportage from all corners of the world. It is a repository of original, challenging, controversial and intelligent writing on free expression issues. The Index on Censorship logs free expression abuses in scores of countries worldwide in its Index section. It reports on censorship issues from all over the world and participates in debates on these issues. It works on projects in monitoring, publishing, training, and advocacy. One of its objectives is to lay the foundations of a regular independent edition of Index of Censorship in Arabic.


Institute for War and Peace Reporting (United Kingdom, f. )

IWPR seeks to build democracy at the frontlines of conflict and change through the power of professional journalism. IWPR programs provide intensive hands-on training, extensive reporting and publishing, and ambitious initiatives to build the capacity of local media. Supporting peace-building, development and the rule of law, IWPR gives responsible local media a voice. The Institute is an international network for media development, with not for- profit divisions in Europe, the US and Africa supporting training and capacity-building programs for local journalism, with field programs in more than two dozen countries.


International Center for Journalists (United States, f. 1984)

The International Center for Journalists is a non-profit, professional organization that promotes quality journalism worldwide in the belief that independent, vigorous media are crucial in improving the human condition. ICFJ has worked directly with more than 30,000 journalists from 176 countries. ICFJ’s programs span five continents, and cover everything from media ethics and investigative reporting to business and environmental journalism. ICFJ offers hands-on workshops, international exchanges and conferences on hot topics like immigration. Working in print, television, radio and online media, ICFJ helps journalists to produce high-impact content, and host a website for international journalists: The International Journalists' Network. 


International Journalists’ Network (United States, f. )

The International Journalists' Network (IJNet) is a resource for the media assistance community. It is an online service for journalists, media managers, media assistance professionals, journalism trainers and educators, or anyone else with an interest in news media around the world. IJNet’s mission is to help connect journalists with the opportunities and information they need to better themselves and raise journalism standards in their countries. Hand-in-hand with that mission, IJNet strives to track media training and other assistance efforts in more than 150 countries, helping donors and organizers avoid duplication and learn about innovative programs around the world. IJNet is published daily in Arabic, English, Persian, Portuguese and Spanish.


International Media Support (Denmark, f. 2001)

The long-term strategic vision of government funded IMS is to contribute to peace, stability and the development of democracy in conflict and conflict threatened areas. This is achieved through rapid interventions to promote and strengthen press freedom and professional journalism and to improve the working conditions of local journalists and media practitioners. The aim is to allow the population in endangered areas to exercise their right to express themselves freely - also in times of crisis.


Internews (United States, f. 1982)

Internews works to improve access to information for people around the world by fostering independent media and promoting open communications policies in the public interest. Internews has worked in 70 countries, and currently has offices in 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America. Internews Network is a founding member of Internews International, an umbrella organization, based in Paris, made up of 12 media development NGOs. Internews trains over 9,000 media professionals each year in journalism, production, and management. Internews works with local media professionals to produce original, high-quality programming in order to strengthen the independent media sector. Internews provides a broad range of infrastructure support to enable independent media to provide vital news and information. Internews has worked for the adoption and implementation of fair media laws and policies in 21 countries. Internews has developed special global programs in health journalism, environmental journalism, humanitarian media, information and communications technology, and governance and transparency.


International Press Institute (Austria, f. 1950)

IPI is a global network of editors, media executives and leading journalists, dedicated to the furtherance and safeguarding of press freedom, the protection of freedom of opinion and expression, the promotion of the free flow of news and information, and the improvement of the practices of journalism. IPI intervenes to defend press freedom through written protests and actively monitors media activities. IPI has set up the IPI Press Freedom Fund which finances missions to countries where press freedom is under threat. IPI enjoys consultative status with the UN, UNESCO, the Council of Europe and other intergovernmental organisations. IPI organises an annual World Congress in conjunction with the annual IPI General Assembly. IPI undertakes extensive research on issues relevant to the media and circulates several publications on press freedom. IPI regularly scrutinizes new media laws and provides governments with recommendations on how to bring their legislation in line with internationally accepted standards on freedom of expression. IPI publishes the annual IPI World Press Freedom Review, the IPI Global Journalist, the organization’s quarterly magazine and other special publications.


IREX The International Research & Exchanges Board (United States, f. 1968)

IREX is an international nonprofit organization providing leadership and innovative programs to improve the quality of education, strengthen independent media, and foster pluralistic civil society development. IREX has an annual portfolio of $50 million and a staff of over 400 professionals worldwide. IREX and its partner IREX Europe deliver programs and consulting expertise in more than 50 countries. In the field of media IREX works with local partners to advance the professionalism and long-term economic sustainability of newspapers, radio, television, and Internet media. Specialized programs and small grants build skills for balanced, investigative reporting, better media management, and advocacy for press freedoms. Program areas include: Journalism Training and Education, Media Strategy and Management, Business Development and Advertising, News and Public Affairs Production, Media Law Reform and Advocacy, Technology and Infrastructure, and Development.


Freevoice (The Netherlands, f. 1986)

Free Voice is the media organization founded by journalistic and media organizations in the Netherlands that strives for: independent and multiform media, and balanced and reliable journalistic press freedom in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Since its foundation Free Voice has supported over 500 projects. Most of the projects were locally, nationally or regionally situated in developing countries. Free Voice publishes a newsletter on media developments in the Middle East and North Africa. Free Voice was established in 1986 and is supported by the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (48%) and other funds.


International News Safety Institute (Belgium, f. 2003)

The International News Safety Institute is a non-governmental organization dedicated to the safety of journalists and media staff and committed to fighting the persecution of journalists everywhere. The main founding parties were the International Federation of Journalists and the International Press Institute. INSI is a coalition of media organizations, press freedom groups, unions and humanitarian campaigners working to create a culture of safety in media in all corners of the world. The working program of the Institute provides an information service covering all aspects of news safety and includes an extensive program of risk-awareness training for media staff in poorer regions where news gatherers are routinely under pressure, but where economic and social conditions deny them access to basic safety services. INSI supports and contributes to a global network of press freedom groups and promotes safety standards in order to make journalism safer and more professional.


Reporters Without Borders (France, f. 1985)

Reporters Without Borders is a non-profit organization and has consultant status at the United Nations. Reporters Without Borders defends journalists and media assistants imprisoned or persecuted for doing their job and exposes the mistreatment and torture of them in many countries; fights against censorship and laws that undermine press freedom; gives financial aid each year to 100 or so journalists or media outlets in difficulty (to pay for lawyers, medical care and equipment) as well to the families of imprisoned journalists; works to improve the safety of journalists, especially those reporting in war zones. RSF compiles reports of press freedom violations, sends protest letters, and organizes fact-finding missions. All the organization’s press releases and publications are available online in five languages (Arabic, English, French, Spanish and Persian) at its website which keeps a daily-updated list of journalists killed or imprisoned around the world. It also contains detailed reports on special cases and invites the public to sign online petitions for the release of jailed journalists. RSF publishes an annual round up of press freedom in the world and issues an annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index.


World Press Freedom Committee (United States)

The World Press Freedom Committee is an international umbrella organization that includes 45 journalistic groups -- print and broadcast, labor and management, journalists, editors, publishers and owners on six continents -- united in the defense and promotion of press freedom. WPFC primary focus is on: monitoring threats that develop at UNESCO, the UN and other leading intergovernmental organizations; promoting a global common front against restrictions on news through leadership of a worldwide Coordinating Committee of Press Freedom Organizations, facilitating joint action and administering shared projects; seeking to ensure press freedom is a primary consideration for the Internet and other new media. WPFC has developed a Charter for a Free Press, administers a Fund against Censorship that extends self-help legal grants, and has completed nearly 200 training and related projects including publication of journalism manuals around the world.



International Media Associations


AMARC (Canada, f. 1983)

AMARC is an international non-governmental organization serving the community radio movement, with almost 3 000 members and associates in 110 countries. Its goal is to support and contribute to the development of community and participatory radio along the principals of solidarity and international cooperation.


American Press Institute (United States, f. 1946)

The API was founded by newspaper publishers and is devoted to training and professional development for the news industry and journalism educators. The API specializes in developing leading-edge educational programs for working media professionals. The API has run programs in the fields of advertising, circulation, editorial and general management, marketing and weekly newspapers. The executive staff also provides industry service through speeches, writings, and visits to media and university campuses. The API also provides the Journalist’s Toolbox.


Cartoonists Rights Network International (United States, f. 2006)

CRNI is a network of 600 editorial and social cartoonists worldwide that assist campaigns through letters, emails and cartooning. CRNI monitors and supports cartoonists who are in trouble because of their work. CRNI publishes collections of cartoons, awards an annual award, maintains an archive of cartoons that got cartoonists in trouble, and organizes workshops on cartooning.


European Journalism Centre (The Netherlands, f. 1992)

The European Journalism Centre (EJC) is an independent, international, non-profit institute dedicated to the highest standards in journalism, primarily through the further training of journalists and media professionals. The aim of the website is to assist journalists to do a better job when reporting and commenting on news and current affairs. The EJC website provides tools such as a variety of RSS feeds on international news, journalism, technology and audio/video as well as an extensive resources section with links to useful websites. The European Journalism Centre is a partner in the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Programme ”COMMUNICATE - COOPERATE”, which aims to develop an online training course for young professionals, graduates of communication schools and science departments on the communication of risk-related scientific information. The long-term aim of the project is to develop the communication skills of scientists and journalists in order to enhance the dialogue and cooperation amongst them, and improve overall communication with civil society and the general public.


Journalism (PEJ) (United States, f. 1998)

The Project for Excellence in Journalism (PEJ) is a research organization that specializes in using empirical methods to evaluate and study the performance of the press. PEJ is part of the Pew Research Center in Washington, D.C, which administers six other research projects funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts. PEJ's research agenda includes a series of continuing content studies of the news agenda, plus tracking of key industry trends, and timely commentary and analysis of that trend data. PEJ publishes the State of the News Media, an annual report on American journalism, and the Daily Briefing, a digest of media news.


Institut PANOS Paris (France, f. 1986)

The Institut Panos Paris was established as a non governmental organization focusing on giving support to media pluralism. Its work stems from the conviction that information and media pluralism are essential for democracy, peace and citizenship.The Institut Panos Paris endeavors to foster a media environment that reflects the diversity of our contemporary societies, where all communities, including the most marginalized, are able to express their points of view, exert their influence and contribute to local and international public debates.


International Publishers Association (Switzerland, f. 1896)

The International Publishers Association (IPA) is the global non-governmental organization representing all aspects of book and journal publishing worldwide. IPA's mission is to promote and protect publishing and to raise awareness for publishing as a force for cultural and political advancement worldwide. IPA is an industry association with a human rights mandate. The International Publishers Association (IPA) is a federation of national, regional and specialist publishers' associations. Its membership comprises more than 60 organizations from more than 50 countries worldwide. IPA represents the interests of the publishing industry in international fora and wherever its interests are at stake. The promotion and defense of copyright is one of IPA's main objectives. Since its foundation, IPA also promotes and defends freedom to publish, a fundamental aspect of the human right to freedom of expression. IPA also stands for the promotion of literacy and reading. As an industry association, IPA also deals with a number of other issues affecting publishers, from book fairs to standard developments. IPA is an accredited non-governmental organization (NGO) enjoying consultative relations with the United Nations.


International Telecommunication Union (Switzerland, f. 1865)

ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies. As the global focal point for governments and the private sector, ITU’s role in helping the world communicate spans 3 core sectors: radio communication, standardization and development. ITU also organizes TELECOM events and was the lead organizing agency of the World Summit on the Information Society. ITU’s membership includes 191 Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates.


Inter Press Service

IPS was set up in 1964 as a non-profit international cooperative of journalists. In 1994, in order to strengthen its non-profit identity, IPS changed its legal status to that of a ‘public-benefit organization for development cooperation’, open to journalists, professional communicators and bodies active in the fields of information and communication.


Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc (United States, f. 1975)

Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc. is a grassroots nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality of investigative reporting. IRE was formed to create a forum in which journalists throughout the world could help each other by sharing story ideas, newsgathering techniques and news sources. The mission of Investigative Reporters and Editors is to foster excellence in investigative journalism, which is essential to a free society. We accomplish this by: providing training, resources and a community of support to investigative journalists; promoting high professional standards; protecting the rights of investigative journalists; and ensuring the future of IRE.


Media Monitors Network (United States, f. 2000)

Media Monitors Network (MMN) is a non-profit, non-bias and non-political platform that aims to counter information warfare and fabricated propaganda in the world media and to promote the whole truth, fairness and accuracy in news reporting. MMN is seeking for the truth in most critical "hot topics" which can often be twisted by the world media. MMN aims to become a major platform for serious media contributors and observers from around the globe.


MediaTenor International (United States, f. 1993)

Media Tenor is a consulting firm founded as the first media research institute to focus on continuous 100 percent media analysis. Media Tenor helps organizations leverage the media. Through partnership with Media Tenor, organizations are better able to tailor messages to reach target audiences, eliminating much of the guesswork this process often entails. Effective use of the media can also significantly decrease the need for spending on advertising and increase the return on investment from an organization’s external communication. Media Tenor has opened a university institute, the Arab Media Centre Institute at Emory University in Atlanta, which has access to current Media Tenor data for their own research and teaching. It publishes a quarterly research journal.


Nieman Watchdog (United States, f. 1938)

The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University was founded "to promote and elevate the standards of journalism in the United States." Nieman Watchdog’s goal is to help the press ask penetrating questions, critical questions, questions that matter, questions not yet asked about today's news. seeks to encourage more informed reporting by putting journalists in contact with authorities who can suggest appropriate, probing questions and who can serve as resources.


OnlineJournalism (United States, f. 1998)

Online Journalism’s mission is the development and continuing education of professional online journalists. is a global directory of independent and affiliated news websites, maintained by the Online Journalism Review at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School of Journalism.


Poynter Online (United States, f. 1975)

The Poynter Institute is a school for journalists, future journalists, and teachers of journalists. The website collects the resources of every journalism training organization in the United States. The Poynter Report, an Institute magazine, serves as an additional teaching tool that provides creative thinking about journalism.


Press Reference

Press Reference is a website dedicated to bring together basic information on press, media, television, radio, and newspapers in every country of the world.


Project Syndicate (Czech Republic, f. 1995)

Project Syndicate is an international not-for-profit association of quality newspapers devoted to: bringing distinguished voices from across the world to local audiences everywhere; strengthening the independence of printed media in transition and developing countries; upgrading their journalistic, editorial, and business capacities. Project Syndicate currently consists of 312 newspapers in 128 countries, with a total circulation of 42,915,780 copies. Its activities fall into two broad categories: disseminating the highest quality commentaries and analysis to its member papers, and fostering institutional links among member papers.


Public Journalism Network (United States, f. 2003)

The Public Journalism Network is a global professional association of journalists and educators interested in exploring and strengthening the relationship between journalism and democracy. PJNet believes in learning and growing as practitioners, educators and scholars – and strengthen practice, education and scholarship – by examining, experimenting with and enhancing the theory and practice of journalism in relation to the theory and practice of democracy. PJNet believes a public philosophy for journalism should be articulated that helps journalists reach deeper into the communities they serve and that helps communities work more closely with the journalists who serve them.


Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press (United States, f. 1970)

RCFP is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing free legal assistance to journalists working in the United States since 1970. The Committee is a resource in free speech issues, disseminating information in a variety of forms, including a quarterly legal review, a bi-weekly newsletter, a 24-hour hotline, and various handbooks on media law issues.


Reuters Foundation

The Reuters Foundation was created in 1982 to support journalists from developing countries. Today, the Foundation embraces a wide range of educational, humanitarian and environmental causes and projects. These include: AlertNet (the online news and communications service for the international disaster relief community); AIDFund (fast support for aid agencies in the hours immediately following the onset of natural disasters); Educational projects (projects which advance literacy, IT and other skills); Community projects (diverse practical and financial support for communities around the world in response to needs identified by Reuters employees); Journalism training (a wide range of university fellowships and short training courses for journalists); and Technology Fellowship (for technologists working on solutions for challenges facing the developing world).


Society of Professional Journalists (United States, f. 1909)

SPJ promotes the free flow of information vital to a well-informed citizenry through the daily work of its nearly 10,000 members; works to inspire and educate current and future journalists through professional development; and protects First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech and press through its advocacy efforts. It is the mission of the Society of Professional Journalists: to promote the free flow of information; to maintain constant vigilance in protection of the First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech and of the press; to stimulate high standards and ethical behavior in the practice of journalism; to foster excellence among journalists; to inspire successive generations of talented individuals to become dedicated journalists; to encourage diversity in journalism; to be the pre-eminent, broad-based membership organization for journalists; to encourage a climate in which journalism can be practiced freely. the SPJ publishes Quill, a magazine for professional journalists, a newsletter, press notes, and an annual magazine The Journalist.


Visual Editors (United States, f. )

Visual Editors is a non-profit organization that provides free learning opportunities to students and the public through online forums, journalism critiques, and seminars. The Visual Editors peer-to-peer education concept helps student journalists and also helps make journalism practices more transparent to lay people.


World Association of Newspapers (France, f. 1948)

The World Association of Newspapers groups 76 national newspaper associations, individual newspaper executives in 102 nations, 10 news agencies, and 10 regional press organizations. It is a non-profit, non-government organization. In all, the Association represents more than 18,000 publications on the five continents. The World Association of Newspapers has three major objectives: Defending and promoting press freedom and the economic independence of newspapers as an essential condition for that freedom; Contributing to the development of newspaper publishing by fostering communications and contacts between newspaper executives from different regions and cultures; Promoting co-operation between its member organizations, whether national, regional or worldwide.



International Aid, Development, and Human Rights Organizations


Amnesty International (United Kingdom, f. 1961)

Amnesty International (AI) is a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights, among which the right to freedom of expression. AI’s mission is to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination, within the context of its work to promote all human rights. AI searches out the facts, sends experts to talk with victims, observes trials and interviews local officials and human rights activists. AI monitors thousands of media outlets and maintains contact with reliable sources of information all over the world. AI’s research is carried out by expert staff, supported by specialists in a range of fields such as international law, media and technology. AI publishes detailed reports, informs the news media, and publicizes AI’s concerns in leaflets, posters, advertisements, newsletters and websites. The website is published in English, French, Spanish, and Arabic.


Freedom House (United States, f. 1941)

Freedom House is an independent non-governmental organization that supports the expansion of freedom in the world. Freedom House supports nonviolent civic initiatives in societies where freedom is denied or under threat and stands in opposition to ideas and forces that challenge the right of all people to be free. Freedom House conducts an array of advocacy, education, and training initiatives that promote human rights, democracy, free market economics, the rule of law, independent media, and US engagement in international affairs. Freedom House's annual publications draw attention to global trends in democracy and cast a public light upon dictatorships and abuse, such as Freedom in the World, Freedom of the Press, Nations in Transit, and Countries at the Crossroads. Freedom House's survey data on freedom of the press, spanning a time frame from 1980 to the present, is the most comprehensive data on global media freedom available and is a key resource for scholars, policymakers, and international institutions. Freedom House also undertakes advocacy efforts through the publication of special reports and press releases that highlight specific issues, and is actively involved with other groups in the global press freedom community in organizing events and programs designed to expand the space for free expression around the world.


Human Rights Watch (United States, f. 1978)

Human Rights Watch is an independent, nongovernmental organization, dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. HRW investigates and exposes human rights violations and hold abusers accountable. Human Rights Watch’s principal advocacy strategy is to shame offenders by generating press attention and to exert diplomatic and economic pressure on them by enlisting influential governments and institutions. Human Rights Watch publishes reports and compiles annual reports presenting an overview of the worldwide state of human rights. It’s website offers material in 21 languages, among which also Arabic.


International Committee of the Red Cross

The mission of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found; to protect life and health and ensure respect for the human being, in particular in times of armed conflict and other emergencies; to work for the prevention of disease and for the promotion of health and social welfare; and to encourage voluntary service and a constant readiness to give help by the members of the Movement, and a universal sense of solidarity towards all those in need of its protection and assistance. The right of journalists to freely exercise their profession is not addressed by international humanitarian law and therefore does not come within the ICRC's purview. However, the ICRC does deal with issues of humanitarian concern arising in connection with the disappearance or capture of journalists in wartime or the detention of journalists in situations of internal disturbances or tension. The website offers material in seven languages, among which in Arabic.


International Crisis Group  (Belgium, f. 1995)

The International Crisis Group (Crisis Group) is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization, with some 130 staff members on five continents, working through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy to prevent and resolve deadly conflict. Crisis Group's approach is grounded in field research. Teams of political analysts are located within or close by countries at risk of outbreak, escalation or recurrence of violent conflict. Based on information and assessments from the field, it produces analytical reports containing practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers. Crisis Group also publishes CrisisWatch, a twelve-page monthly bulletin, providing a regular update on the state of play in all the most significant situations of conflict or potential conflict around the world. The website offers material in 23 languages, among which Arabic.


Open Society Institute ( United States, f.1993)

The Open Society Institute is a private operating and grant-making foundation that aims to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform. On a local level, OSI implements a range of initiatives to support the rule of law, education, public health, and independent media. At the same time, OSI works to build alliances across borders and continents on issues such as combating corruption and rights abuses. OSI publishes reports, annual reports, and a newsletter.


UNESCO-Communication and Information (France, f. 1990)

The Communication and Information Sector (CI) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in its present form in 1990. Its programs are rooted in UNESCO’s Constitution, which requires the Organization to promote the “free flow of ideas by word and image.” Besides its staff at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, the CI Sector is represented in 27 UNESCO field offices. The three principal strategic objectives of the Sector’s programs are: promoting the free flow of ideas and universal access to information; promoting the expression of pluralism and cultural diversity in the media and world information networks; and promoting access for all to ICTs.